The Maqueta Stone: Evidence of an Unknown Civilization?

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By Marco M. Vigato

A small site in the southern part of the state of Mexico, virtually unknown until it was only partially excavated in the early 1990’s, may hold the evidence of an unknown civilization that flourished at the same time as the mysterious Olmecs and left some incredible stone monuments that have no equals in other parts of Mexico and Mesoamerica.

The small archaeological site of San Miguel Ixtapan is located in the south of the State of Mexico, at the entrance of the Tierra Caliente region that from the highlands of Central Mexico leads down to the Pacific coast.

A view of the 40-meter long ballgame court of San Miguel Ixtapan, one of only three known in the State of Mexico. [Photo by Author].

The site is only one of a handful that has been at least partially explored in the southwestern part of the State of Mexico, an otherwise blank spot on the archaeological map of Mexico. Its discovery only dates to 1985, when a huge sculptured “maqueta” model stone was uncovered by farmers plowing a field near the local cemetery. It was not until 1995 that a small portion of the site, including parts of a large pyramid and a Mesoamerican ball court – only one of three known in this part of Mexico – were excavated.

The earliest traces of human occupation in the area date back at least 12,000 years, in the form of cave paintings in the nearby Sierra de Nanchititla. An unknown culture then occupied the site around 2,000 BCE. To this remote period dates a human burial found on top of a still unexcavated pyramid mound or platform, which contained a mosaic stone mask, another smaller mask made of jadeite with Olmecoid features, and a jade beads necklace, together with human remains that provided a chronological reference date for the burial (Sinaí Gomez, 2012). Since the time of the site’s discovery, several subsequent excavation campaigns have revealed at least five different periods of occupation of the site during the Formative, Pre-Classic, Classic, Epi-Classic and Post-Classic period.

A detail of the small Olmecoid (?) green stone mask associated with the offering. [Photo by Author]

Several Formative period ceramic figurines were also found, dating to between 800 and 200 BCE, showing affinities with the Tlapacoya and Tlatilco artistic tradition of Central Mexico. The discovery of a number of Teotihuacan style artefacts further testify to the site’s occupation during the Classic period, when it either came under direct political control or was influenced by Teotihuacan. After the fall of Teotihuacan, in what is known as the Epi-Classic period (750-900 AD), the site knew its greatest expansion, with the construction of several monumental structures and pyramids rivaling in size other nearby sites like Teotenango and Xochicalco.

After a period of abandonment, the site was then reoccupied by the Aztecs in the Post-Classic period, and remained inhabited until the time of the Spanish conquest.

A set of enigmatic stone idols with crossed arms, part of a larger offering found in the “Recinto de las Esculturas” (Enclosures of the Sculptures) area of the site, dated to the Epiclassic period (650-900 CE) [Photo by Author]

The site nowadays consists of a large pyramidal platform with a temple and smaller rooms on top in which several sculptures were found, a Mesoamerican ball court, a monumental stairway built of large basalt blocks, and a sunken courtyard. Some very notable sculptures were found in niches and chambers of the main pyramid (also known as Basement 3), including a large stela with a depiction of the rain god Tlaloc, and multiple anthropomorphic figures with unusually crossed arms, a pose quite rare in ancient Mexico and with possible funerary significance.

The “Patio de las Esculturas” (Enclosures of the Sculptures” located on a terrace of the main pyramid, with two monolithic stone slabs and idols still in the same original archaeological setting where they were found during excavations in the mid 1990’s. [Photo by Author]
A stela with an early depiction of the god Tlaloc. [Photo by Author].

The site is also home to a small but very interesting site museum containing a wealth of objects found during the early 1990’s excavations, including ceramics, stone and jadeite ornaments, obsidian knives and points, copper and bronze artefacts (including a remarkable necklace with exquisitely worked human heads and figurines made of copper), as well as stone sculptures, votive offerings and a stone ring associated with the ballgame court. The artefacts show a remarkable range of trade interactions and a definite influence from the Mezcala culture of Guerrero and the Balsas river culture. The location of San Miguel Ixtapan was probably considered strategic on account of the presence of salt mines, still in use since prehispanic times, and of large deposits of columnar basalt providing readily available material for construction.

A circular stone marker found in the ballgame court of San Miguel Ixtapan and dating to the late Epiclassic period (ca. 650-900 CE). [Photo by Author].

The incredible “Maqueta” Stone model

The “Maqueta” stone is a huge carved basalt stone boulder, measuring some 3 by 4 meters. It was this stone, uncovered by farmers plowing a field, which first called archaeologists to the site in 1985. The huge stone is entirely covered in miniature representations of architectural structures believed to represent a city (whether real or imaginary is a matter of speculation), complete with temples, pyramids, at least five ballgame courts, plazas and sunken courtyards, all connected by avenues and stairways.

The incredible “Maqueta” stone model of San Miguel Ixtapan, carved from a single huge boulder of basalt measuring 3 by 4 meters and believed to contain the representation of a yet unidentified city. Seen from the West. [Photo by Author]

Several attempts have been made to identify the site depicted on the stone, seemingly a hilltop ceremonial center of exceptional scale and complexity, but these attempts have so far proven entirely fruitless. It is possible that the stone portrays a yet undiscovered site, perhaps located in the mountains to the north and east of San Miguel Ixtapan, or that the city depicted was purely imaginary, a votive representation of an idealized place or sanctuary. It may well be a city that is still lost or the drawing of a city yet to be built.

Another view of the same sector of the “Maqueta” stone, showing a row of buildings inside what appear to be rock-cut trenches and a large pyramid complex and plaza below, now quite eroded. [Photo by Author].

There are no definite elements for dating the “Maqueta” stone, but archaeologists mostly favor a date in the Epiclassic or early Postclassic period (ca 900-1200 AD). In the second part of this article we will be discussing some of the other evidence of high-precision megalithic architecture in San Miguel Ixtapan.

Marco holds an MBA from Harvard Business School and a BA and MSc in Finance from Bocconi University. He is a photographer and researcher documenting the evidence of ancient civilizations and sacred sites around the world, specifically the megalithic remains of ancient Mexico and Mesoamerica. A native of Italy, he currently lives in Mexico City. Please follow his personal blog Uncharted Ruins as well as his Facebook Page for insightful articles and photographs relating to ancient history and megalithic structures


We would like to thank archaeologist Victor Osorio Ogarrio, director of the site and archaeological museum of San Miguel Ixtapan for his kind permission to visit the “Recinto de las Esculturas” and for accompanying us on our visit to Rancho “I”.

The opinions expressed in this article are solely the Author’s and do not necessarily reflect the opinions and beliefs of Dr. Osorio, of the National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH), or of the Secretary of Culture of the State of Mexico.


[1] INAH, “Zona Arqueológica de San Miguel Ixtapan”, on January 9, 2008. On-line resource: Accessed on April 20, 2021.

[2] Malmstrom, Vincent H. “Geographical Origins of the Tarascans”. Geographical Review, vol. 85, No. 1, January 1995, pp. 31-40.

[3] Osorio Ogarrio, Victor Ángel and Marco Antonio de León Cortés. “Una posible Diosa Prehispánica en San Miguel Ixtapan, Tejupilco”, Arqueología Mexicana, 158, July-August 2019, pp. 46-51.

[4] “Revista cultural San Miguel Ixtapan”, Expresión Antropológica, no. 1-2 Nueva Serie. Gobierno del Estado de México: Secretaría de Cultura, 1999.

[5] Reyna Robles, Rosa María, La Cultura Arqueológica Mezcala, Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, 2006.

[6] “San Miguel Ixtapan, Estado de México”, Arqueología Mexicana, Especial 35, Estado de México, guía arqueológica, June 2010.

[7] Sinaí Gomez, Rodolfo, “Antecedentes Históricos – Tejupilco”, Municipio de Tejupilco, 2012. On-line resource. Accessed on April 25, 2021 through

[8] Wikipedia, “San Miguel Ixtapan (Archaeological Site)”. Last edited on December 19, 2020. On-line: Accessed on April 20, 2021.

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